Homer saying "all I have to do is follow the yellow drip road" is a reference to Glinda the Good Witch's quote "all you have to do, is follow the yellow brick road", in the iconic movie "The Wizard of Oz".
Lisa telling Homer to beware the ides of March is a reference to William Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar."
John Hancock in historical flashback during the signing of Declaration of Independence saying "Lets Party Like It's 1799" was parody of catchphrase from Prince's song "1999".
Homer's underwear being thrown in crate of fire which looks like Ark of Covenant which unleashed the ghosts similar to spirits from Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Stonecutter numbers: Lenny is number 12, Carl is number 14, and Mr. Burns is number 29, which means that Lenny and Carl outrank him in the Stonecutter pecking order. Homer is given number 908.
In the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants, the episode "Cephalopod Lodge" is very similar to Homer the Great. The plot of the episode is that SpongeBob gets Squidward banned from an ancient society.
The robe that the Stonecutter guard wore was the same standard burgundy color as all the other Stonecutters when Homer was peering out of the bush, but when Homer attempted to go through the doors, the guard's robe switched to black.
Kirk Van Houten was drawn slightly off-model when Grampa and Homer entered the Stonecutters headquarters.